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Generic Protection Technique Tutorials


Item name: Rootkits: What they are, and how to find them
Rating: 0.0 (0 votes)
Author: Xeno Kovah                        
Home URL: http://opensecuritytraining.info/
Last updated: September 21, 2011
Version (if appl.):
Direct D/L link: http://opensecuritytraining.info/Rootkits.html
Description: This is a 2 day class which is freely available to watch. You can also take the materials and use them to teach your own classes.

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Introductory Intel x86, Intermediate Intel x86, and Life of Binaries (all available at http://opensecuritytraining.info/Training.html) are strongly recommended to be taken before of this class.

Rootkits are a class of malware which are dedicated to hiding the attacker’s presence on a compromised system. This class will focus on understanding how rootkits work, and what tools can be used to help find them.

This will be a very hands-on class where we talk about specific techniques which rootkits use, and then do labs where we show how a proof of concept rootkit is able to hide things from a defender. Example techniques include
•Trojaned binaries
•Inline hooks
•Import Address Table (IAT) hooking
•System Call Table/System Service Descriptor Table (SSDT) hooking
•Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT) hooking
•Direct Kernel Object Manipulation (DKOM)
•Kernel Object Hooking (KOH)
•IO Request Packet (IRP) filtering
•Hiding files/processes/open ports
•Compromising the Master Boot Record (MBR) to install a “bootkit”

The class will help the student learn which tools to use to look for rootkits on Windows systems, how to evaluate the breadth of a tool’s detection capabilities, and how to interpret tool results.

This class is structured so that students are given a homework to detect rootkits *before* they have taken the class. This homework is given in the context of the following scenario:

“You, being the only ‘security person’ in the area, have been called in to
examine a running Windows server because "it's acting funny." They don't
care that you like Mac/Linux/BSD/Plan9 better, you need to look at it! You
are solemnly informed that this is system is mission critical and can only
be rebooted if absolutely necessary. You must investigate whether any sort
of compromise has taken place on the system, with minimal impact to the
mission. What do you do? What DO you DO?”

The homework is then for the student to use any means at their disposal to write up answers to the following questions: “What malicious changes were made to the system?”, “What tools did you use to detect the changes?”, “How can you remove the changes?”. The students’ answers are then anonymized and shared with the rest of the class afterwards, so that they can see how others approached the problem, and learn from their techniques. The anonymization of the homework before distribution is important so that students know that even though they don’t know, and aren’t expected to know, anything about the area yet, their entry will not be judged by other students.
Also listed in: Generic Malware Analysis Tutorials, Generic Reversing Technique Tutorials, Windows Internals Tutorials, Windows Malware Analysis Tutorials, Windows Tool Tutorials
More details: Click here for more details, images, related URLs & comments for this item! (or to update its entry)



Item name: The Life of Binaries
Rating: 0.0 (0 votes)
Author: Xeno Kovah                        
Home URL: http://opensecuritytraining.info/
Last updated: September 6, 2011
Version (if appl.):
Direct D/L link: http://opensecuritytraining.info/LifeOfBinaries.html
Description: This is a 2 day class which is freely available to watch. You can also take the materials and use them to teach your own classes.

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Topics include but are not limited to:
• Scanning and tokenizing source code.
• Parsing a grammar.
• Different targets for x86 assembly object files generation. (E.g. relocatable vs. position independent code).
• Linking object files together to create a well-formed binary.
• Detailed descriptions of the high level similarities and low level differences between the Windows PE and Linux ELF binary formats. (NOTE: we didn't get to this in the class where the video was recorded, but the materials are in the slides)
• How an OS loads a binary into memory and links it on the fly before executing it.

Along the way we discuss the relevance of security at different stages of a binary’s life, from the tricks that can be played by a malicious compiler, to how viruses really work, to the way which malware “packers” duplicate OS process execution functionality, to the benefit of a security-enhanced OS loader which implements address space layout randomization (ASLR).

Lab work includes:
• Manipulating compiler options to change the type of assembly which is output
• Manipulating linker options to change the structure of binary formats
• Reading and understanding PE files with PEView
• Reading and understanding ELF files with Readelf (NOTE: we didn't get to this in the class where the video was recorded, but the materials are in the slides)
• Using WinDbg and/or GDB to watch the loader dynamically link an executable
• Using Thread Local Storage (TLS) to obfuscate control flow and serve as a basic anti-debug mechanism
• Creating a simple example virus for PE
• Analyze the changes made to the binary format when a file is packed with UPX
• Using the rootkit technique of Import Address Table (IAT) hooking to subvert the integrity of a program’s calls to external libraries, allowing files to be hidden.

Knowledge of this material is recommended, but not required, for future classes such as Rootkits, but is required for reverse engineering. (Both also at http://opensecuritytraining.info/Training.html)
Also listed in: Generic Malware Analysis Tutorials, Generic Reversing Technique Tutorials, Linux ELF Articles, Windows Internals Tutorials, Windows Malware Analysis Tutorials, Windows Reversing Technique Tutorials, Windows Tool Tutorials, Windows Unpacking Tutorials
More details: Click here for more details, images, related URLs & comments for this item! (or to update its entry)




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